When abnormal cells in our body are multiplied and divided in an uncontrolled manner, this condition is mentioned as a disease of cancer. As a result of this, malignant growths are formed which is called tumors. Throat cancer is related to the cancer of vocal cord, vocal box, tonsils, pharynx, and larynx.
Types of Throat Cancer
There different types of throat cancer. There are two main types of throat cancer, like squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. When the inner lining of the throat is affected by cancer, it is called squamous carcinoma and when cancer affects the glandular cell of the throat region is called adenocarcinoma. There are also other types of cancer like pharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer. Pharyngeal cancer is included with nasopharynx cancer, oropharynx cancer and hypopharynx cancer relating upper part, middle part and bottom part of the throat respectively. The other type of cancer is laryngeal cancer relating larynx and voice box.
Symptoms of Throat Cancer
The detection of throat cancer at the primary stage is difficult, but there are some common signs and symptoms of the throat cancer which are given below.
- Changing in your normal voice
- Trouble for swallowing
- Loss of weight
- Creation of a sore throat
- A headache
- Congestion feeling inside the throat
- Persistence of a cough which may be included with blood
- Pain in ears
- Lymph node of the neck region become swollen
- Hoarseness of voice
Causes of Throat Cancer
Men are affected by the throat cancer than women due to certain habits of lifestyle. Some of these causes are listed here.
- Consumption of excessive alcohol
- Maintenance of dental hygiene poorly
- Genetic syndrome
- Insufficient nutrition
- Showing to asbestos
Sometimes, HPV (Human Papillomavirus Infection), which is one of the sexually transmitted viruses, can cause oropharyngeal cancer. Throat cancer is also linked with the other types of cancer like esophageal cancer, lung cancer or gallbladder cancer.
Diagnosis of Throat Cancer
There are so many cancer hospitals in India, where you can make an appointment with the best cancer doctor in India. They will help you to diagnose the disease after discussing your medical history and symptoms. They can refer to the specialist for laryngoscopy which will provide a closer and detail view of your throat. If any abnormality is identified in this procedure, you will be advised for biopsy of the sample tissue of your throat. There are two types of biopsies. These are given below.
- FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration): The doctor directly a thin shaped needle into the tumor to collect the sample tissue for performing biopsy test.
- Endoscopic Biopsy: The doctor uses an endoscope for the removal of the sample tissue of your throat by inserting a long and thin tube through your nose, mouth or an incision.
Identification of Stages of Throat Cancer
If any cancerous cell is identified by the biopsy test, the additional tests are performed for the identification of staged of throat cancer. The ranges of the stages are given below.
- At Stage 0: Only the top layer of the cells of the throat region is affected.
- At Stage 1: The size of a tumor is limited within 2 cm. and spread in the source region
- At Stage 2: The size of the tumor is from 2 cm to 4 cm. and spread small area.
- At Stage 3: The tumor sized with larger than 4 cm. and spread greater area.
- At Stage 4: The tumor spreads to distant organ from throat.